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Introduction to Core

ASP.NET Core is a free and open-source web framework, and higher performance than ASP.NET, developed by Microsoft and the community. It is a modular framework that runs on both the full .NET Framework, on Windows, and the cross-platform .NET Core. However, the expected version ASP.NET Core 3 was announced to work only on .NET Core dropping support of .NET Framework.

The framework is a complete rewrite that unites the previously separate ASP.NET MVC and ASP.NET Web API into a single programming model.

Despite being a new framework, built on a new web stack, it does have a high degree of concept compatibility with ASP.NET MVC. ASP.NET Core applications support side by side versioning in which different applications, running on the same machine, can target different versions of ASP.NET Core. This is not possible with previous versions of ASP.NET.

Diffrence between Asp.Net core and Asp.Net 4.x

Build for Windows, macOS, or LinuxBuild for Windows
Razor Pages is the recommended approach to create a Web UI as of ASP.NET Core 2.x. See also MVCWeb API, and SignalR.Use Web FormsSignalRMVCWeb APIWebHooks, or Web Pages
Multiple versions per machineOne version per machine
Develop with Visual Studio, Visual Studio for Mac, or Visual Studio Code using C# or F#Develop with Visual Studio using C#, VB, or F#
Higher performance than ASP.NET 4.xGood performance
Choose .NET Framework or .NET Core runtimeUse .NET Framework runtime

Blazor | Free and Open-Source Web Framework

Blazor is a Single Page Application development framework. The name Blazor is a combination/mutation of the words Browser and Razor (the .NET HTML view generating engine). The implication is that instead of having to execute Razor views on the server in order to present HTML to the browser, Blazor is capable of executing these views on the client.

Blazor lets you build interactive web UIs using C# instead of JavaScript. Blazor apps are composed of reusable web UI components implemented using C#, HTML, and CSS. Both client and server code is written in C#, allowing you to share code and libraries. Blazor is a feature of ASP.NET, the popular web development framework that extends the .NET developer platform with tools and libraries for building web apps.

Blazor uses open web standards without plugins or code transpilation. Blazor works in all modern web browsers, including mobile browsers.

Code running in the browser executes in the same security sandbox as JavaScript frameworks. Blazor code executing on the server has the flexibility to do anything you would normally do on the server, such as connecting directly to a database.